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An important debate within the urban agriculture movement is what level of self-sufficiency cities can realistically obtain. Local self-sufficiency or reliance refers to the principle that localities should have the capacity to produce or obtain at least the basic necessities from within their physical boundaries (Morris 1987 ). It can be argued that in this modern age of globalization, it is impractical to be completely isolated, with many benefits associated with sharing knowledge and resources globally. However, basic needs such as food and water should still be essential items that a community can gain access to for the sake of economic stability, autonomy, and survival, especially in light of environmental and climatic changes. In the case of urban agriculture, self-reliance means the ability to produce enough food for people living in an urban area, be it a household, neighborhood, city, or region, without relying on external resources. Such local self-reliance comes with a number of economic and social benefits, including job creation within the food sector, increased property values, reduced economic leakage, and community empowerment (Malakoff sorel Womens Park City Faux Fur Wedge Bootie 05g4Ke8w

Table 1

Percentage self-reliance in fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, shell eggs, poultry, and total food and beverage in Cleveland, Ohio, under three different scenarios and using three vegetable production practices: conventional, intensive, and hydroponic (Grewal and Grewal 2012 )

conventional, intensive, hydroponic

: 78.5% of every vacant lot (80 × 80-ft garden) dedicated to vegetables and fruit and 1.5% of every vacant lot (11 ×11-ft chicken coop and run) used for eggs and poultry. : scenario 1 plus an additional 7.2% of every occupied residential lot (20 × 20-ft garden) used for vegetables and fruit and 1.8% of every occupied residential lot (10 × 10-ft chicken coop and run) used for eggs and poultry. : scenario 2 plus 62% of every industrial and commercial rooftop used for vegetables and fruit

These categories represent only those vegetables and fruits that can be produced in Ohio (see Grewal and Grewal 2012 for a complete list)

Given current zoning codes limiting the number of chickens per lot for maximum production

Total food and beverage percent self-reliance was calculated based on total weight

Total food and beverage percent self-reliance was calculated based on total expenditure

Among the challenges associated with increased urban food production are health risks from food contamination. Heavy metals can be introduced into the soil through atmospheric deposition from urban combustion emissions or industrial pollutants (Chen et al. Ancient Greek Sandals White Apli Eleftheria Sandals 8UToI
), wastewater usage (Mapanda et al. Salvatore Ferragamo Womens Capo 55 Leopard Print Flower Heel Booties MjlJ0rZLc
), and soil amendments that contain agrochemicals or sewage sludge (Deportes et al. Soludos Knotted Strap Slides UuRUF
; Senesi et al. 1999 ). These heavy metals may then be bioavailable for plant uptake and consequent human consumption (Kachenko and Singh 2006 ). The routes most common in developed countries are urban combustion emissions and industrial pollutants. Accumulation of trace metals in vegetation grown near roads has been shown to be significantly higher than those grown in rural areas due to traffic-related contaminants in the air (Chen et al. Loeffler Randall Womens Isabel Shearling Slide Sandals sICNpjWk
; Hough et al. Converse CHUCK TAYLOR ALL STAR BIG EYELETS Hightop trainers blue slate/white/navy VDykRvSIjv
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). Such metal accumulation in edibles could pose a hazard to human health in terms of cancer incidence and mortality due to low toxic threshold concentrations or bioavailability (Senesi et al. 1999 ). While the majority of foods grown in urban areas pose minimal risk, if grown in close proximity to roads, the risks will be elevated, especially for vulnerable groups such as the elderly and the young (Hough et al. 2004 ).

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Ida Ling Flanagan



Ida Ling Flanagan



LiU conducts world-leading research within the field that encompasses both advanced image processing and the conversion of enormous amounts of data into understandable images, maps and diagrams. The results are also used for augmented reality and immersive environments.

Ever-increasing amounts of information and torrents of data are placing ever-greater demands on us with respect to sorting and analysing, in order to take wise and well-informed decisions. Visualiseringscenter 2017 Research at LiU has produced advanced algorithms and methods to convert terabytes of data to the megabytes that humans can cope with and understand. Just as important are the processes by which instructions are sent back to the systems as useful signals. People and automatic systems must be able to collaborate in a robust and trustworthy manner, even in emergencies. Huge quantities of information can be visualised in diagrams and graphs. Virtual objects can be placed into images of real surroundings, in a technique known as “augmented reality”. Immersive environments, such as the Dome in Visualization Center C, open new possibilities, but place additional demands on both calculation methods and design. Pioneering research in these areas is carried out at LiU. The future may bring an intelligent holographic avatar that answers questions and provides support and advice. There’s already one in the LiU laboratory. LiU’s research has resulted in commercial products such as the visualisation table, which is sold all over the world, and in highly praised arenas open to the public, such as Visualization Center C in Norrköping. The part of Visualization Center C open to the public is operated by Norrköping municipality, while research at Visualization Center C is carried out by a consortium that includes the Division for Media and Information Technology at Linköping University and RISE Interactive C-Studio.

Visualiseringscenter 2017

Turning huge amounts if data into information (short video, eng)

Magnetic resonance finds fatty liver

Taking tissue samples to diagnose fatty liver can be replaced in most cases by a painless magnetic resonance investigation, according to a new study.

LiU awarded jubilee grant from KAW

Visualization Center C in Norrköping will be the hub in a major science project funded by SEK 150 million from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Five science centres will participate – in Norrköping, Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö and Umeå.

Mummy visualisation impresses

World-leading technology from Linköping University and Visualization Center C has been described in a prestigious journal of computer science, Communications of the ACM, where it has received a great deal of attention.

Grab hold of the nanoworld

Is the nanorevolution at the door? Maybe. Researchers are working on developing visual worlds that will get the general public to understand the risks and advantages of nano technology.

Six challenging projects as WASP takes off

Systems that can see, listen, smell and collect information from many different sources, and act upon that.. Automatic transport systems and decision-making support of cognitive companions. Six projects have been finalised in Wasp.

Pluto close up

In a packed auditorium in the Dome Theatre of the Visualisation Centre we witnessed the historic moment when the New Horizons space probe passed Pluto, thanks to OpenSpace, a software system developed at LiU.


Analytic Imaging Diagnostic Arena (AIDA) is a national arena for research and innovation on analytic image-based diagnostics.

The Norrköping Decision Arena

An advanced interactive arena offers politicians, scientists and planners technical support in meetings where difficult decisions are to be taken. This might concern urban planning, resource management or measures to adapt to a changing climate.

Musical sonification

Sound can be used to simplify understanding of a visual representation of research data, or to improve the outcome of an interaction between human and a machine. To use sound in this way is called sonification.

Seeing organ function

Seeing organ function (SOF) is a visionary project with ambitious goals. By starting with a medical problem we work interdisciplinary, linking medical research and clinical use with novel technique.

Immersive Visualization

The Immersive Visualization group is conducting research and development in a range of technologies to create an immersive and engaging visualization of data.

Visual Learning and Communication

Our research is about teaching and learning science with visualizations. We focus on biology and molecular sciences, and are interested in both learning with and design of visualizations.

Media Design and Image Reproduction

One of the main research directions in the Media Design and Image Reproduction area concentrates on the use of information-intensive systems, exploring and evaluating new concepts for interaction and information design in a variety of contexts.

Scientific Visualization

We develop novel analysis, visualization and exploration techniques for a better understanding and communication of large data.

Information Visualization

Ourprimary interest is how computer graphics displays and interaction mechanisms, together with mathematical analysis methods can support the visualization process.

Computer Graphics and Image Processing

The computer graphics and image processing group is driving a number of research projects directed towards the development of theory and methodology for image capture, image analysis and image synthesis.

Media and Information Technology, MIT

The research at MIT is conducted in groups that focuses on a separate aspect of visual information technology, but not isolated from each other. The collaborative atmosphere involves both basic and application oriented research.

Visualisering av stora datamängder i grundskolan

Interaction Design

Work within interaction design focus on user experience. The research also studies how visualisation of huge quantities of data can be experienced as reliable decision-support information, and how the expertise of the user can be exploited.

Media technology

Media technology deals with images as carrier of large quantities of information. Research encompasses graphic design and art, the quality of reproductions and advanced colour theory as well as visualization for flat screens and dome theatres in 3D.

Center for medical image science and visualization (CMIV)

CMIV conducts focused front-line research providing solutions to tomorrow’s clinical issues. The CMIV mission is to develop future methods and tools for image analysis and visualization for applications within health care and medical research.

Visualiseringscenter C

Consists of five actors: the public arena Visualiseringscenter C, Cnema, the RICE Interactive C-Studio, Norrköping Science Park, and C-research – research conducted by the Division for Media and Information Technology, Linköping University.

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Table2 summarizes the echocardiographic characteristics of the study cohort, in aggregate and stratified by UACR quartile. Higher UACR was associated with indicators of LV hypertrophy such as higher LVmass, increased relative wall thickness, and higher LV mass-to-volume ratio. However, UACR was not associated with LV chamber size. Despite the presence of a preserved EF in all study participants, LV systolic function was lower in the subjects withhigher UACR levels: both PRSW (reflective of theability of the LV to increase stroke work with increasing preload, a load-independent marker of contractility), and longitudinal LV systolic function (i.e., tissue Doppler s′ velocity) were inversely correlated with UACR. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher UACR remained associated with lower PRSW, even when subjects with macroalbuminuria were excluded ( Table3 ). Higher UACR was associated withreduced tissue Doppler s′ velocity after adjustment for age and sex but not after adjustment for comorbidities.

In a subset of the HFpEF study participants onwhom we performed speckle-tracking analysis (n= 29), log-transformed UACR was significantly correlated with global longitudinal strain ( Dolce amp; Gabbana Leather Lace Ups Jq5WSbJQU
) (r=−0.48, p= 0.009). The inverse association between UACR and absolute values of global longitudinal strain persisted after adjustment for DM, eGFR, and CAD (p= 0.004). UACR was not associated with global circumferential strain (r= 0.01; p= 0.94) or global radial strain (r=−0.04; p= 0.84).


Scatterplot of UACR vs. Global Longitudinal Strain

Yellow = no albuminuria (UACR <30 mg/g); orange = microalbuminuria (UACR 30 to 300 mg/g); red = macroalbuminuria (UACR >300 mg/g). UACR= urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

In terms of LV diastolic function, higher UACR was associated with worse diastolic dysfunction grade and elevated E/e′ ratio, but these associations were no longer present after adjustment for multiple comparisons ( Table2 ). UACR was not significantly associated with e′ tissue velocity, a marker of LV diastolic relaxation.

Association of UACR With Right Heart Parameters

UACR was associated with several right heart parameters, including RV wall thickness, RV end-systolic area index, RV basal diameter, and RVFAC ( Table2 ); however, only RV wall thickness and RVFAC were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. UACR was significantly elevated in those with RV hypertrophy: median UACR was 41.5 mg/g (interquartile range [IQR]: 12 to 229 mg/g) versus 12 mg/g (IQR: 6 to 46mg/g) for those without RV hypertrophy; p= 0.002. Those with abnormal RV systolic function, defined as RVFAC<35%, had higher median UACR values as well: 67 mg/g (IQR: 16 to 213 mg/g) versus 13mg/g (IQR: 6 to 48 mg/g); p= 0.02. Those with and without abnormal TAPSE did not have significantly different levels of UACR (p= 0.70).

The association between RV size, hypertrophy, and systolic function (RVFAC) persisted after adjustment for multiple possible confounders ( Table3 ). To evaluate the effect of right heart pressures on the association between UACR and these RV parameters, we ran additional models that adjusted for estimated PASP and estimated RAP. Higher UACR was still associated with increased RV wall thickness after adjustment for PASP and RAP (0.12 mm [95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20 mm] increase in RV wall thickness per doubling of UACR, p= 0.002). The association of increased UACR with decreased RVFAC was of borderline statistical significance after multivariable adjustment (−0.78% [95% CI:−1.12% to 0.28%] change in RVFAC per doubling of UACR, p= 0.050). The increase in regression R for each model after theaddition of log UACR is displayed in Online Table1 . As shown in Table3 , the associations between UACR and RV parameters also persisted after the exclusion ofstudy participants with macroalbuminuria (UACR >300 mg/g). Finally, of the 144 patients included inourstudy, 97 (67%) underwent right heart catheterization. In these 97 patients, the mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 23.1 ± 9.6mmHg. Adjustment for LV diastolic pressure (i.e., pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) did not eliminate the association between UACR and RV wall thickness (0.15 mm increase per doubling of UACR; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.24 mm; p= 0.001).

The median follow-up time was 12.1 months (25th to 75th percentile: 4.1 to 21.6 months), during which time 58(40%) of the study participants experienced the composite outcome of cardiovascular hospitalization (including HF hospitalization) or death. Adverse outcomes were increased in a stepwise fashion with each higher UACR quartile, as shown in New Balance ML597 Trainers burgund/grey YoP0tbis
. Figure3 shows the Kaplan-Meier curves for the combined endpoint of cardiovascular hospitalization or death, stratified by median UACR, demonstrating that higher UACR levels predicted worse outcomes. Table4 displays Cox proportional hazard ratios per doubling of UACR for the combined outcome of cardiovascular hospitalization or death. Higher UACR was significantly associated with worse outcomes after adjustment for age, sex, African-American race, DM, CKD, CAD, anemia, and several markers of HF severity, including E/e′ ratio, LV mass index, and NYHA functional class. However, adjustment for BNP attenuated the relationship between UACR and outcomes. Online Table2 displays the AUC before and after the inclusion of log UACR, IDI, and relative IDI for each outcomes model.

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