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Attempts to demonstrate respect may cause more harm than good if they are inconsistent or haphazard. Employees are likely to perceive vague expressions by HR or high-level leaders that are not enacted day-to-day by managers and peers as manipulative or disingenuous. And if people are particularly respectful in some situations but not in others—for example, if a manager offers praise only in the presence (or absence) of senior leaders—their words will probably be viewed as insincere. Finally, you should guard against earned respect that is not actually deserved; it won’t resonate. One Televerde employee put it this way: “It’s not like you want constant empty compliments….I’m looking to give you a valuable job.” Because employees see honesty as one of the most valuable expressions of respect, insincere compliments, however well-intentioned, are likely to be counterproductive.

During her first month at work, one Televerde employee I met said that she had never held a full-time job, had no idea how to talk to CEOs, and doubted that the job could be authentically “her.” Nine months later she told me about supportive peers, accomplishments on several projects, and meaningful praise from her manager. She added, “I learned something, actually, since I made that statement [nine months ago]….You are what you make yourself, so [the job] is me if I want it to be.” Finding the right people for the right jobs and coordinating day-to-day operations are a manager’s solemn duty. As my research shows, however, the responsibilities don’t end there: Managers must also build a workplace of respect that allows employees—and, as a result, their companies—to become the best possible versions of themselves.

A version of this article appeared in the July–August 2018 issue (pp.62–71) of .

Kristie Rogers is an assistant professor of management at Marquette University.

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Thanks so much for this fascinating, in-depth treatise on owed and earned respect, based upon your research at Televerde.

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In This Section

The Author

Jean Louis Sébédio William W. Christie

UMR 1019, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, Plateforme d’exploration du métabolisme, INRA centre de Theix, 63122 St Genes Champanelle, France Brief Biography Jean Louis Sébédio James Hutton Institute (and Mylnefield Lipid Analysis), Invergowrie, Dundee (DD2 5DA), Scotland Brief Biography William W. Christie

1. Introduction

polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of C, C, and C chain lengths having up to six ethylenic bonds are part of the human diet. They are formed during heat treatments such as deodorization of vegetable or fish oils [1] or during frying operations [2]. This process tends to cause isomerization of double bonds without changing their positions to a significant extent. Some polyunsaturated fatty acids are also from natural origins such as those containing conjugated double bonds or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). This short review will only deal with polyunsaturated fatty acids having methylene-interrupted double bonds as information on CLA can be found elsewhere on the site .

A nutritional intervention carried out on human has shown that, like the monounsaturated fatty acids, some of the -PUFA may have an effect on lipoprotein metabolism [3]. It is therefore very important to detect and quantify them in food products. This brief review will describe the two main approaches, gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (together with chemical degradative techniques) used to analyse polyunsaturated fatty acids in food products.

2. Gas-Liquid Chromatography

Isomers of linoleic and α-linolenic acids

The three geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, namely 9,12-18:2, 9,12-18:2 and 9,12-18:2, which are very often present in refined, unhydrogenated liquid vegetable oils, are readily separated in the order stated on capillary columns coated with polar cyanosilicone. The four common geometric isomers of α-linolenic acid, i.e., 9,12,15-18:3, 9,12,15-18:3, 9,12,15-18:3 and 9,12,15-18:3, which are also very often present in refined liquid vegetable oils, give peaks that can be readily recognized in GC analyses on cyanosilicone capillary columns, and they are eluted from the column in order stated above ( Fig. 1 ) [4,5].

The 18:2 isomer group of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils may contain up to 15 other 18:2 isomers. The identification of these is difficult, because suitable commercial standards are not available, except for 9,12-18:2, 9,12-18:2 and 9,12-18:2. However, these are the isomers most often encountered and their elution patterns have been established for SP-2560 and CP-Sil 88 columns. In general, such isomers elute in the order < < followed by . We will not extend discussion on this subject because of the efforts made by the industry to reduce the amount of partially hydrogenated oil in human diet. However, pertinent information has been published [6].

Even greater care must be taken when analysing the 18:3 isomers present in some refined vegetable oils. 11-Eicosenoic acid (11-20:1) is a natural monounsaturated fatty acid present in appreciable amounts in some vegetable oils, such as peanut oil and canola oil. Animal fats, especially lard, also contain this fatty acid but at lower levels. The 11-20:1 elutes in the 18:3 region of the chromatogram and its relative retention time with respect to the 18:3 varies with the column temperature. Depending on the temperature of the column, it may elute before, with or after α-linolenic acid (9,12,15-18:3). Therefore, an understanding of these variations is critical for the correct identifications of all the peaks in the 18:3 region of the chromatogram and for achieving correct fatty acid compositional data (for details see [5,7]).

Isomers of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

Studies carried out on the development of analytical methods for identifying and quantifying polyunsaturated fatty acids with 5 or 6 ethylenic bonds are rather scarce and literature on the subject is limited [8-11]. In one study [8], isomers of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6-3) acids were prepared by isomerization with -toluenesulfinic acid and the isomers fractionated by silver ion HPLC in order to have pure fractions of mono- and di- isomers. BPX-70 columns seem to have a more suitable selectivity for the analysis of EPA and DHA isomers compared to SP-2560. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) phases may also be used to analyse isomers of long-chain PUFA in fish oil concentrates only if 22:0 and 22:1 are not present in significant amounts [9].

Two-dimensional fatty acid retention indices (for calculation see ref. 12) were found suitable and better than equivalent chain-length (ECL) values for identification of geometry in these polyunsaturated fatty acids [8].

Quantification of geometrical isomers of highly unsaturated fatty acids such as EPA and DHA is a complex issue considering the number of components and isomers that may result from a heat treatment [10]. A validated method was recently published by Fournier . [11] to quantify low amounts of geometrical isomers of EPA and DHA in refined fish oils. It consists of converting the fish oil in to methyl esters and then analysing these by GC on a 100 m CP-Sil 88 column using a temperature programming method and hydrogen as the carrier gas. The elution of the EPA and DHA geometrical isomers present in a fish oil deodorized at 220°C is presented in Figure 2 . The only drawback of such an analysis is the co-elution of a minor mono- isomer of DHA and all- DHA. However, for samples containing low levels of isomers this led to an underestimation of about 10%, which is within the magnitude of uncertainty of the method.

3. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

For definitive identification of polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is necessary that they are each isolated in sufficient amount and purity for chemical characterization. Although silver ion TLC is useful for obtaining a total -18:3 fraction from isomerized oils [13], HPLC in the silver ion mode appears to be the most useful micropreparative method for isolation of individual isomers, as illustrated in Figure 3 for α-linolenic acid [14].

The all-isomer eluted first, followed by each of the di- isomers, then the mono- isomers and finally all--18:3. Similar results were obtained by Adlof, who was also able to resolve 15 of the 16 possible -isomers from arachidonate in the form of the methyl esters on a Chromspher Lipids column with hexane-acetonitrile (98.5:1.5, v/v) as mobile phase [15]. Later, Mjøs was able to separate methyl esters of isomerized EPA and DHA into groups according to the number of double bonds, although individual isomers were not resolved [8].

4. Position of a Double Bond in a Fatty Acid Chain

Determination of the position of a double bond on the carbon chain is a complex procedure ( Fig. 4 ), which involves a combination of partial hydrogenation of the purified fatty acid, isolation of the resulting monoenes and separation into and fractions by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography or HPLC, and subsequent analysis of each fraction by GC coupled with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR) and by GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the dimethyloxazoline (DMOX) derivatives.

Partial hydrogenation of the unknown polyunsaturated fatty acid is a critical step, which is usually carried out using hydrazine reduction as described by Ratnayake [16]. From a fatty acid having 3 double bonds, hydrazine reduction will give a mixture of the saturated fatty acid, 3 monoenes, 3 dienes and some unreacted fatty acid. As the hydrogenation takes place without modification of the position or the geometry of the original double bond, the double bonds in the three monoenes will be representative of the true positions. Consequently, structure elucidation is carried out on the monoenes. While the position of each ethylenic bond is given by GC-MS, the geometry of each double bond can be confirmed by GC-FTIR, although the elution characteristics on silver ion chromatography are usually a reliable guide.

References

Figure 1 . The 18:2 (left) and 18:3 (right) regions of a GC chromatogram of FAMEs from a refined canola oil sample analysed using a SP-2560 capillary column (100 m × 0.25-mm I.D. × 20 μm film thickness), operated isothermally at 180°C. Hydrogen carrier gas, flow rate 1 mL/min.

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Similarly, IDC Research reported the top three industries investing in IIoT in 2018 are manufacturing ($189 billion), with a focus on asset management; transportation ($85 billion), with a focus on freight monitoring and fleet management; and utilities ($73 billion), with a focus on smart grids, while consumer IoT spending will reach $62 billion.

More optimistically, Accenture expects IIoT to add $14.2 trillion to the economy in the same time period, growing at a 7.3% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) through 2020.

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Actually, the Industrial IoT refers to the application of IoT to a broader set of industries than just manufacturing. It includes various industries like healthcare, transportation, energy, even smart cities, retail and buildings. Check out the Industrial Internet Consortium for more.

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Although diastolic dysfunction is well documented in HFpEF, longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction isbeing increasingly recognized in HFpEF, even though its impact on outcomes is unclear (37) . Inacommunity-based cohort of HFpEF patients, stress-corrected midwall fractional shortening was predictive of adverse events (38) . Once again, the relationship between higher UACR and worse LV function may be explained by inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. These mechanisms could lead to dysfunction at the level of the cardiomyocyte and simultaneously drive systolic and diastolic dysfunction.

Study Strengths and Limitations

The strengths of this study include the prospective and standardized recruitment of HFpEF patients and the detailed, quantitative echocardiographic phenotyping used to evaluate cardiac structure and function. For these reasons, we were able to determine the associations between albuminuria and novel markers of LV systolic/diastolic function and RV structure/function. Our study also included detailed adjudication of adverse events, and follow-up was complete on all patients, so we could demonstrate independent associations between UACR and outcomes in HFpEF.

Our study has some potential limitations. First, this study had 144 patients and would benefit from replication in a larger sample. Additionally, the use of a single spot urine test to measure UACR is a limitation, although single-void UACR is known to correlate highly with 24-h samples (39) . Another potential limitation is the recruitment of all patients from a single academic medical center; however, Northwestern Memorial Hospital serves a large, diverse urban environment. Although our cohort was younger than those described in epidemiological and registry HFpEF studies, rates of comorbidities were similar, and our cohort was more racially diverse. African Americans had higher body mass index and were younger than whites in our study, which may account for the observed deviations from prior epidemiological studies. Thus, our data should most likely be generalizable to the broader population of HFpEF patients.

Although our study showed an association between UACR and BNP, there was no such association with other measures of diastolic function, including left atrial volume and e′ tissue velocity. Markers such as diastolic function grade and E/e′ ratio failed to meet significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. These findings may be due to the fact that these markers were abnormal in the majority of our study population, which may have limited our power to detect associations with these parameters. In addition, measures of systolic function, including PRSW and s′ tissue velocity, are not direct, invasive measures of contractility and are instead estimated on echocardiography. However in a study of 45patients, PRSW by the method used in this study correlated well with invasive measurements of PRSW (r= 0.93) (24) .

Finally, our study lacks detailed records on how many screened patients failed to meet Framingham criteria for HF on an initial inquiry of hospital records. Furthermore, our study lacks a control group of age-matched healthy volunteers or comorbidity-matched patients without HFpEF; thus, it is not possible to determine whether the prognostic utility of UACR is driven by accumulation of comorbidities.

Conclusions

In HFpEF, albuminuria is independently associated with RV remodeling and dysfunction, worse LV systolic and diastolic function, and worse outcomes. UACR may prove to be useful for risk stratification inHFpEF, and the aforementioned associations mayallow a deeper understanding of HFpEF pathophysiology.

Online Tables1 and 2 [S2213177914003333_mmc1.docx]

Appendix

For supplemental tables, please see the online version of this article.

Footnotes

This study was funded in part by an American Heart Association Scientist Development Grant (#0835488N) and a National Institutes of Health grant (R01 HL107557), both to Dr. Shah. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.

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